The Immunological and Allergen Profiles of Patients with Atopic Dermatitis or Psoriasis

Medicina (Kaunas). 2022 Mar 1;58(3):367. doi: 10.3390/medicina58030367.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis (PS) are systemic inflammatory diseases with complex and distinct immune mechanisms. That the same factors may aggravate both diseases cannot be ruled out. The aim of this study was to assess the potential differences between a sensitization to inhaled allergens and the immunological profiles of patients diagnosed with AD and PS in comparison with healthy controls.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 139 patients with AD, 115 with PS, and 142 controls were included in the prospective study. Patients were eligible if they were diagnosed with mild to severe AD or PS and between 18 and 65 years of age. In all the participants, the serum concentrations of specific IgE (sIgE) for common inhaled allergens were measured. In all the subjects, the cytokine serum blood profiles for TNF-α, IFN-γ, Il-2, Il-4, Il-5, Il-6, Il-8, Il-12, Il-17, Il-18, Il-22, and Il-24 were measured via an ELISA.

RESULTS: The patients with AD had positive sIgE results more frequently than the patients with PS and the controls (113 vs. 36 vs. 21, respectively). A sensitization to mites was dominant in the patients with AD (p < 0.05), and a sensitization to Aspergillus was dominant in the patients with PS (p < 0.05). The patients with multiple allergies to inhaled allergens had a lower risk of developing PS (OR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.43-0.86) but a greater risk of severe AD (OR = 3.77; 95% CI: 3.25-3.96). The mean concentrations of the most tested cytokines were comparable in the patients with AD and PS. However, high serum concentrations of Il-4, Il-5, and Il-6 were only dominant in the AD group. There were no relationships between the increased serum concentrations of individual cytokines and allergies to the individually examined allergens.

CONCLUSION: Inhalation-dependent IgE sensitizations were prevalent in the AD patients but were also possible in the PS patients; they were often without clinical manifestations in the latter group. The investigated cytokine profiles indicated their high convergence in the studied patients and confirmed the active inflammatory nature of AD and PS.

PMID:35334542 | DOI:10.3390/medicina58030367

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