Non-Dermatophyte Mold Dominated Onychomycosis in Patients Attending a Rank Higher Specialized Dermatology Clinic in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2022 Mar 23;15:507-518. doi: 10.2147/CCID.S357738. eCollection 2022.
BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis is a common refractory fungal infection associated with significant morbidity. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of onychomycosis, and the diversity and species composition of fungal etiological agents.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A clinic-based, prospective, non-randomized cross-sectional study was carried out between October 2018 and June 2019 at Rank Higher Specialized Dermatology Clinic, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Nail scrapings were collected aseptically from 200 patients clinically identified with nail disorders of fungal origin by dermatologists. Fungal etiological agents were identified microscopically and by culture method following standard procedures.
RESULTS: Among 200 nail scrapings, 161 (80.5%) samples were found out to be culture positive. Of these, 135 (83.9%) samples yielded single colonies while 26 (16.1%) mixed colonies gave a total of 190 isolates. Among the isolates, 25.8% were dermatophytes while 61.1% were non- dermatophytes molds, and 13.1% were yeasts. Females were more likely to present dystrophic nails than men. Patients in the middle age group were more affected. Trichophyton interdigitale, Aspergillus spp, and Candida albicans were the dominant species.
CONCLUSION: The prevalence rate of onychomycosis in the present study was high. The isolation rate of non-dermatophyte molds was higher than dermatophytes and yeasts. Trichophyton interdigitale, Aspergillus spp, and Candida albicans were the dominant etiological agents. Females and patients in the middle age group were more affected. An increase in the prevalence of non-dermatophyte molds in nail infections dictates further investigation demonstrating how this group of fungi causes onychomycosis.