Int J Otolaryngol. 2022 Mar 22;2022:6721896. doi: 10.1155/2022/6721896. eCollection 2022.
BACKGROUND: Fungal ball sinusitis is a sinonasal fungus ball that usually affects immunocompetent adults with female predominance. The most affected sinus is the maxillary sinus. Aspergillus species is the most typically found fungus. Computed tomography (CT) scan is the gold standard tool in order to diagnose fungal ball sinusitis. The ultimate method for a fungal ball is functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS), which has a high success rate and a low morbidity rate.
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to demonstrate the various clinical presentations of fungal ball sinusitis including isolated maxillary sinus, sphenoid sinus, simultaneous occurrence of maxillary and sphenoid fungal ball, and post endonasal endoscopic pituitary surgery fungal ball with various age groups. Also, this study aims to emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and treatment in such cases. Patients and Methods. A retrospective study that was carried in the otorhinolaryngology department of two hospitals: King Fahad Specialist Hospital and Qatif Central Hospital, Eastern Region, Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted on a total of 16 patients who were diagnosed with paranasal sinuses fungal ball in an 11-year period from January 2008 and November 2019.
RESULTS: Out of 16 patients with paranasal sinuses fungal ball, 11 cases were female and 5 males, with age ranging between 16 and 46 years. Results showed eight isolated sphenoid (50%), six isolated maxillary fungal ball (38%), one simultaneous occurrence of the sphenoid and maxillary fungal ball (6%), and one post endonasal endoscopic pituitary surgery for pituitary adenoma (6%). CT scan was performed for all 16 cases which is the standard tool for the diagnosis of the fungal ball.
CONCLUSION: Fungal ball may present with variety of symptoms but most commonly with postnasal discharge (PND), headache, and facial pain. CT sinuses is the diagnostic radiological modality to confirm the diagnosis. The FESS functional endoscopic sinus surgery is the gold safe approach for patients with fungal ball to manage their symptoms, confirm the diagnosis, and removal of disease with no morbidities.