Antifungal Activity of Endophytic Aspergillus terreus Extract Against Some Fungi Causing Mucormycosis: Ultrastructural Study
Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2022 Apr 2. doi: 10.1007/s12010-022-03876-x. Online ahead of print.
Endophytes fungi are applied as favorable safe antifungal agents as well as natural bioactive compounds reservoir. In the current study, the inhibitory effect of endophytic fungus was explained by direct antifungal activity against fungi causing mucormycosis, ultrastructural, and determination of active compounds in fungal extract. Endophytic Aspergillus terreus was isolated from healthy Moringa oleifera leaves and identified morphologically and genetically, and was recorded in gene bank with accession number MW444551.1. Phytochemical analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) of ethyl acetate crude extract (EACE) of A. terreus were performed. GC-MS results of EACE of A. terreus revealed that fungal extract contains 16 major bioactive compounds with extensive pharmaceutical activities. Furthermore, EACE of A. terreus revealed a promising antifungal activity against fungi causing mucormycosis as Rhizopus oryzae, Mucor racemosus, and Syncephalastrum racemosum, where inhibition zones of EACE (10 mg/ml) were 20, 37, and 18 mm, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of EACE was 0.3125 toward M. racemosus, while 1.25 and 2.5 mg/ml against R. oryzae and S. racemosum, respectively. In the same context, treated R. oryzae, M. racemosus, and S. racemosum with EACE of A. terreus revealed elevation of membrane lipid peroxidation which approves membrane leakage. Furthermore, ultrastructure changes were observed which established alteration in both sporangium and hyphal structures; cell membrane and cytoplasm leakage. In conclusion, endophytic A. terreus has an outstanding antifungal activity against fungi causing mucormycosis.