Pulmonary Aspergilloma in a Young Immunocompetent Female: A Rare Clinical Dilemma

Cureus. 2022 Feb 28;14(2):e22724. doi: 10.7759/cureus.22724. eCollection 2022 Feb.

ABSTRACT

Depending on the host’s immunological and respiratory systems, Aspergillus can induce infectious and allergic diseases. Most of the spread occurs in immunocompromised people, whereas aggressive disorder in immunocompetent patients is unusual. We report the case of a 19-year-old female who had shortness of breath, right-sided chest discomfort, and intermittent hemoptysis for six months before being diagnosed with pulmonary aspergilloma. The initial chest x-ray revealed a massive right pneumothorax and a 7.2 cm rounded opacity in the right lower lung. A subsequent computed tomography (CT) chest with contrast revealed a 6.7 cm cavitating mass occupying the right lower lobe. An open right thoracotomy and right lower lobectomy showed a cavitary fungus ball with septate branching hyphae and subsequent methenamine silver staining consistent with Aspergillus in conjunction with a positive Aspergillus antigen. We strongly suggest that pulmonary aspergillosis should be suspected regardless of age or immunocompetence in patients with prolonged cough, hemoptysis, unilateral chest discomfort, and pneumothorax.

PMID:35371658 | PMC:PMC8971099 | DOI:10.7759/cureus.22724

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