4-Nitropyrazolin-5-ones as Readily Available Fungicides of the Novel Structural Type for Crop Protection: Atom-Efficient Scalable Synthesis and Key Structural Features Responsible for Activity
J Agric Food Chem. 2022 Apr 5. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.1c07413. Online ahead of print.
The development of new types of fungicides for agriculture and medicine is highly desirable due to the uprising fungal resistance against commonly used compounds. Herein, 4-substituted-4-nitropyrazolin-5-ones (nitropyrazolones) were proposed as highly active fungicides of the novel structural type. The first scalable and practical method for the nitropyrazolone synthesis was proposed, which is atom-efficient, is applicable for the multigram scale synthesis, and allows for production of a wide variety of nitropyrazolones with high yields and purity. The synthesized compounds demonstrated high fungicidal activity against the broad spectrum of phytopathogenic fungi (Venturia inaequalis, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium moniliforme, Bipolaris sorokiniana, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum). Their mycelium growth inhibiting activity was comparable or superior to that of kresoxim-methyl. In vitro activity against Staphyloccocus aureus, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger revealed that nitropyrazolones are promising candidates against human pathogens. The key factors for the manifestation of high fungicidal activity were established to be an aromatic substituent on the N1 atom and small substituents, such as methyl, at the C3 and C4 positions of the pyrazolone ring.