Recent Advances in Fungal Infections: From Lung Ecology to Therapeutic Strategies With a Focus on Aspergillus spp
Front Med (Lausanne). 2022 Mar 21;9:832510. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2022.832510. eCollection 2022.
Fungal infections are estimated to be the main cause of death for more than 1.5 million people worldwide annually. However, fungal pathogenicity has been largely neglected. This is notably the case for pulmonary fungal infections, which are difficult to diagnose and to treat. We are currently facing a global emergence of antifungal resistance, which decreases the chances of survival for affected patients. New therapeutic approaches are therefore needed to face these life-threatening fungal infections. In this review, we will provide a general overview on respiratory fungal infections, with a focus on fungi of the genus Aspergillus. Next, the immunological and microbiological mechanisms of fungal pathogenesis will be discussed. The role of the respiratory mycobiota and its interactions with the bacterial microbiota on lung fungal infections will be presented from an ecological perspective. Finally, we will focus on existing and future innovative approaches for the treatment of respiratory fungal infections.