Aerosolizable Lipid-Nanovesicles Encapsulating Voriconazole Effectively Permeate Pulmonary Barriers and Target Lung Cells
Front Pharmacol. 2022 Mar 10;12:734913. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2021.734913. eCollection 2021.
The entire world has recently been witnessing an unprecedented upsurge in microbial lung infections. The major challenge encountered in treating the same is to ensure the optimum drug availability at the infected site. Aerosolization of antimicrobials, in this regard, has shown immense potential owing to their localized and targeted effect. Efforts, therefore, have been undertaken to systematically develop lung-phosphatidylcholine-based lipid nanovesicles of voriconazole for potential management of the superinfections like aspergillosis. LNVs, prepared by thin-film hydration method, exhibited a globule size of 145.4 ± 19.5 nm, polydispersity index of 0.154 ± 0.104 and entrapment efficiency of 71.4 ± 2.2% with improved in vitro antifungal activity. Aerodynamic studies revealed a microdroplet size of ≤5 μm, thereby unraveling its promise to target the physical barrier of lungs effectively. The surface-active potential of LNVs, demonstrated through Langmuir-Blodgett troughs, indicated their ability to overcome the biochemical pulmonary surfactant monolayer barrier, while the safety and uptake studies on airway-epithelial cells signified their immense potential to permeate the cellular barrier of lungs. The pharmacokinetic studies showed marked improvement in the retention profile of voriconazole in lungs following LNVs nebulization compared to pristine voriconazole. Overall, LNVs proved to be safe and effective delivery systems, delineating their distinct potential to efficiently target the respiratory fungal infections.