Production and characterization of a broad-spectrum antimicrobial 5-butyl-2-pyridine carboxylic acid from Aspergillus fumigatus nHF-01
Sci Rep. 2022 Apr 9;12(1):6006. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-09925-z.
The present study aims at the production optimization, purification, and characterization of a potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound (AMC) produced by Aspergillus fumigatus nHF-01 (GenBank Ac. No. MN190286). The culture conditions were optimized for a higher amount of AMC. The AMC was solvent extracted and characterized by UV-Vis, FT-IR, ESI-MS, and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The MIC, MBC and mode of action were determined against a set of Gram-positive and Gram-negative human pathogenic bacteria. Its antibiofilm, synergistic and cytotoxic effects were also tested. The putative target site of action was evaluated through in silico molecular docking study. The stain A. fumigatus nHF-01 produced the maximum AMC (5-butyl-2-pyridine carboxylic acid) in 2% MEB (w/v) and 4% YE (w/v) at pH 6.0 and 20 °C temperature with 100 rpm agitation for ten days. It caused complete lethality of the Gram-positive and Gram-negative human pathogenic bacteria at a 129 µg/mL dose by rupture and entire dissolution of cell integrity. It showed moderate antibiofilm activity and had a synergistic activity with streptomycin and additive effects with ciprofloxacin and vancomycin. It targets a respiratory enzyme, Quinol-Fumarate Reductase (1l0v), with the highest binding affinities. It had cytotoxicity against human lung carcinoma A549 cell line and was stable up to 100 °C. Thus, the study revealed that the strain A. fumigatus nHF-01 produces a potent broad-spectrum AMC 5-butyl-2-pyridine carboxylic acid that could be used against human food and topical pathogenic bacteria. This is the first report of such a compound produced from the A. fumigatus.