Dynamics and correlation of microbial communities and metabolic compounds in doenjang-meju, a Korean traditional soybean brick
Food Res Int. 2022 May;155:111085. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2022.111085. Epub 2022 Mar 1.
To investigate the general fermentation characteristics of doenjang-meju (a Korean traditional soybean brick), they were periodically collected from eight different manufacturers during all fermentation stages, and their microbial communities and metabolic compounds (metabolites and volatile compounds) were analyzed. Bacillus and/or lactic acid bacteria (LAB, mainly Enterococcus) and Aspergillus were abundant during fermentation. Fructose and glucose; glycerol; acetate and lactate; and cadaverine, putrescine, tyramine, and histamine were identified as the major sugars, carbon compound, organic acids, and biogenic amines, respectively. Tetramethylpyrazine, butyric acid, butyl butyrate, butanol, acetic acid, 2-methylbutyrate, acetoin, 2,3-butandiol, and nonadecane were the major volatile compounds. However, the profiles of microbial communities, metabolites, and volatile compounds during fermentation varied significanlty among samples. Principal component analysis revealed that doenjang-meju had two differentiated fermentation features, Bacillus-dominated fermentation and LAB (mainly Enterococcus)-dominated fermentation, each having different metabolite and volatile compound profiles. Particularly, fewer volatile compounds were detected in LAB-dominated doenjang-meju samples. Correlation analysis showed a strong negative correlation between Bacillus and LAB, and bacteria and fungi were less correlated with each other. Enterococcus, LAB, and Bacillus were positively correlated with lactate, flavonoid aglycones, and putrescine, respectively, suggesting that they might be mainly responsible for producing the compounds during fermentation. This study provides insights into the general fermentation characteristics of doenjang-meju.