Leuk Lymphoma. 2022 Apr 12:1-7. doi: 10.1080/10428194.2022.2060504. Online ahead of print.
Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) are common in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but no recent data on incidence without antifungal prophylaxis are available. We evaluated the incidence of IFDs in patients with AML undergoing induction chemotherapy at Stanford University Hospital from 2012 to 2017, for up to 12 weeks after induction. We also analyzed factors associated with IFD development. Thirty-six of 240 patients (13%) developed at least one proven or probable IFD. Seventy-eight percent of the proven or probable IFDs were due to Candida or Aspergillus species. Infection due to Fusarium and Mucorales was uncommon. Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of <500 µL/L at the start of induction was associated with an increased risk of IFD. One hundred and eighty-seven patients (78%) were started on systemic antifungal drugs, even without microbiologic evidence of an IFD. IFDs remain frequent in AML patients undergoing induction chemotherapy without antifungal prophylaxis.