Radiol Bras. 2022 Mar-Apr;55(2):78-83. doi: 10.1590/0100-3984.2021.0055.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the radiological findings in pediatric patients with hematological or oncological diseases who also have an invasive fungal infection (IFI).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of all patients with IFI admitted to a pediatric hematology and oncology hospital in Brazil between 2008 and 2014. Clinical and demographic data were collected. Chest computed tomography (CT) scans of the patients were reviewed by two independent radiologists.
RESULTS: We evaluated the chest CT scans of 40 pediatric patients diagnosed with an IFI. Twenty-seven patients (67.5%) had nodules with the halo sign, seven (17.5%) had cavities, two (5.0%) had nodules without the halo sign, and seven (17.5%) had consolidation. The patients with the halo sign and cavities were older (123 vs. 77 months of age; p = 0.03) and had less severe disease (34% vs. 73%; p = 0.04). Ten patients had a proven IFI: with Aspergillus sp. (n = 4); with Candida sp. (n = 5); or with Fusarium sp. (n = 1).
CONCLUSION: A diagnosis of IFI should be considered in children and adolescents with risk factors and abnormal CT scans, even if the imaging findings are nonspecific.