Primary ciliary dyskinesia and fungal infections: two cases of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in children
Pediatr Pulmonol. 2022 Apr 26. doi: 10.1002/ppul.25945. Online ahead of print.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare inherited disease that affects the movement of the respiratory cilia. The main clinical manifestations are chronic upper and lower respiratory symptoms and recurrent lung infections, particularly bacterial and viral infections. Fungal infections are not usually associated with PCD. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a rare complex immune hypersensitivity reaction to Aspergillus fumigatus reported in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis. Only three cases of ABPA associated with adult PCD have been described in the literature. Herein, we reported on two cases of ABPA in two boys aged 10 and 13 years with PCD. Both had severe lung disease and chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. One patient was diagnosed according to the typical clinical features of ABPA, while the other was diagnosed during a scheduled visit with no clinical changes but worsening pulmonary function and radiologic anomalies. The diagnosis of ABPA was confirmed in the two patients who then improved after receiving specific treatment. These two cases were the first to describe the occurrence of ABPA in children with PCD. We recommend that physicians involved in the management of children with PCD be aware of this potential complication. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.