Rev Mal Respir. 2022 May 12:S0761-8425(22)00165-6. doi: 10.1016/j.rmr.2022.04.002. Online ahead of print.
The relationship between infectious disease and therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors remains unknown. We report the case of a 50-year-old woman with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma who responded remarkably well to immunotherapy and underwent upper right lobectomy. Three weeks after hospital discharge, she was readmitted for severe dyspnea due to mainstem bronchus compression by mediastinal mass. Histological analysis of transbronchial needle aspiration revealed A. fumigatus. After six months of voriconazole regimen, her symptoms improved with the regression of bronchial compression. Postoperative progression of pseudo-tumoral mass in patients treated with long-term immunotherapy may be related to opportunistic infectious disease and requires investigation.