MAVS Expression in Alveolar Macrophages Is Essential for Host Resistance against <em>Aspergillus fumigatus</em>
J Immunol. 2022 Jun 24:ji2100759. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.2100759. Online ahead of print.
Our recent data demonstrate a critical role of the RIG-I-like receptor family in regulating antifungal immunity against Aspergillus fumigatus in a murine model. However, the importance of this pathway in humans and the cell types that use this innate immune receptor family to detect A. fumigatus remain unresolved. In this study, using patients who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, we demonstrate that a polymorphism in human MAVS present in the donor genome was associated with the incidence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Moreover, in a separate cohort of confirmed invasive pulmonary aspergillosis patients, polymorphisms in the IFIH1 gene alter the inflammatory response, including IFN-responsive chemokines. Returning to our murine model, we now demonstrate that CD11c+ Siglec F+ alveolar macrophages require Mavs expression to maintain host resistance against A. fumigatus. Our data support the role of MAVS signaling in mediating antifungal immunity in both mice and humans at least in part through the role of MAVS-dependent signaling in alveolar macrophages.