Indoor air microbial load, antibiotic susceptibility profiles of bacteria, and associated factors in different wards of Arba Minch General Hospital, southern Ethiopia

PLoS One. 2022 Jul 7;17(7):e0271022. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0271022. eCollection 2022.


The levels of indoor air microbial load in hospitals are very crucial to the health of patients and health care workers and are to be regularly monitored and maintained at an acceptable level. However, this problem remains overlooked, particularly in developing countries including Ethiopia. A hospital-based cross-sectional study is designed to determine the indoor air microbial load (settle plate technique), microbial isolates (standard microbiological techniques), bacterial susceptibility profiles (Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion technique), and associated factors, in different wards of the title Hospital, southern Ethiopia. An observational checklist was used to collect relevant information related to the associated factors; descriptive and inferential statistics were applied using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS); p-values ≤ 0.05 in the multivariable analysis were considered statistically significant. The total average bacterial and fungal load of the selected wards was 1914±1081.4 Colony Forming Units (CFU)/m3 (95% CI: 1718.5-2109.48 CFU/m3) and 1533.7±858.8 CFU/m3 (95% CI: 1378.5-1688CFU/m3) respectively. The highest mean bacterial (1914±1081.4 CFU/m3) and fungal (1533.7±858.8 CFU/m3) loads were found in the male surgical and female medical wards respectively. A total of 229 bacterial and 139 fungal isolates were obtained; Gram-positive bacteria were the predominant type, 130 (56.7%), particularly the isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, 46 (20.1%). The predominant fungal isolates were Aspergillus sp., 53(38%). Percentages of multidrug-resistant (MDR), extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), and carbapenemase producers respectively were 48.5, 26.5, and 25%. High room crowd index [p = 0.003; Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 12.5 (Confidence Interval (CI) 95%: 2.42-65)], presence of damp/wet materials [p = 0.025; AOR 7 (CI 95%: 1.3-37.4)], intense room traffic [p = 0.004; AOR 9.6 (CI 95%: 1.2-79.3)], inappropriate storage of food and drugs [p = 0.008; AOR 7.5 (CI 95%: 1.7-32)], and unclean environment [p = 0.03; AOR 5.8 (CI 95%: 1.2-28)] showed statistical significance concerning the indoor air microbial loads; most of the wards in Arba Minch General Hospital (AMGH) stand high and not in an acceptable level as per the WHO and the European Commission standards on indoor air microbial load. Periodic air surveillance and infection prevention control programs are required to reduce the transmission of these microbes to inpatients, visitors, and health care workers.

PMID:35797393 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0271022

Source: Industry