Trends in the Prevalence of Amphotericin B-Resistance (AmBR) among Clinical Isolates of Aspergillus Species
J Mycol Med. 2022 Jul 14;32(4):101310. doi: 10.1016/j.mycmed.2022.101310. Online ahead of print.
The challenges of the invasive infections caused by the resistant Aspergillus species include the limited access to antifungals for treatment and high mortality. This study aimed to provide a global perspective of the prevalence of amphotericin B resistance (AmBR), geographic distribution, and the trend of AmBR from 2010 to 2020. To analyze the prevalence of in vitro AmBR in clinical Aspergillus species, we reviewed the literature and identified a total of 72 articles. AmBR was observed in 1128 out of 3061 Aspergillus terreus (36.8%), 538 out of 3663 Aspergillus flavus (14.9%), 141 out of 2691 Aspergillus niger (5.2%), and 353 out of 17,494 Aspergillus fumigatus isolates (2.01%). An increasing trend in AmB-resistant isolates of A. fumigatus and a decreasing trend in AmB-resistant A. terreus and A. flavus isolates were observed between 2016 and 2020. AmB-resistant A. terreus and A. niger isolates, accounting for 40.4% and 20.9%, respectively, were the common AmB-resistant Aspergillus species in Asian studies. However, common AmB-resistant Aspergillus species reported by European and American studies were A. terreus and A. flavus isolates, accounting for 40.1% and 14.3% in 31 studies from Europe and 25.1% and 11.7% in 14 studies from America, respectively. The prevalence of AmB-resistant A. niger in Asian isolates was higher than in American and European. We found a low prevalence of A. terreus in American isolates (25.1%) compared to Asian (40.4%) and European (40.1%). Future studies should focus on analyzing the trend of AmBR on a regional basis and using the same methodologies.