NADPH oxidase 2 plays a protective role in experimental <em>Aspergillus fumigatus</em> keratitis in mice through killing fungi and limiting the degree of inflammation
Int J Ophthalmol. 2022 Jul 18;15(7):1044-1052. doi: 10.18240/ijo.2022.07.02. eCollection 2022.
AIM: To explore whether nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 2 (NOX2) is expressed in fungal keratitis in mice and investigate its role in this disease.
METHODS: NOX2 expression was detected in C57BL/6 mice. After testing the inhibitory effect of diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) on NOX2, its impact on clinical performance, myeloperoxidase levels, the number of colonies forming units, the level of H3, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the release of cytokines [NF-κB, interleukin-17A (IL-17A), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Nrf2, IL-10, and TGF-β] were compared. A one-way ANOVA and an unpaired, two-tailed Student’s t-test was used to determine the statistical significance.
RESULTS: NOX2 expression was significantly increased after Aspergillus fumigatus injection in corneas and that this increase could be reduced by treatment with DPI. DPI treatment produced more severe inflammation and resulted in higher clinical scores, more neutrophils infiltration, a weakened ability to clear fungi, the release of fewer ROS and the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. Treatment with DPI increased the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines NF-κB, IL-17A, IL-6, and TNF-α and decreased the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokines Nrf2, IL-10 and TGF-β compared to their expression levels without DPI treatment.
CONCLUSION: NOX2 plays an important role against Aspergillus fumigatus in the mouse cornea through killing fungi and limiting the degree of inflammation.