Characterization and Antifungal Activity of Pullulan Edible Films Enriched with Propolis Extract for Active Packaging
Foods. 2022 Aug 3;11(15):2319. doi: 10.3390/foods11152319.
Active pullulan films with the addition of 3, 5 or 10% propolis extract produced by the casting method were tested in the study. Propolis extracts from Bochnia County, Siedlce County and Ełk County (Poland) were used. The appearance of the films was characterized, as well as physical parameters (thickness, moisture content, water solubility), tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (EB), optical characteristics (light transparency, UV barrier, color) and antifungal properties. The antifungal activity of the films was tested by the disc diffusion method against yeast (Candida albicans, C. krusei, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa) and mold (Alternaria solani, Fusarium solani, Rhizopus stolonifer, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, C. cladosporioides, Aspergillus niger, A. ochraceus, Mucor mucedo, Penicillium expansum, P. chrysogenum). The origin of propolis influenced the color and water solubility of the films. The addition of increasing concentrations of propolis extract increased the film thickness and the intensity of the yellow color, extended the water dissolution time of the film and reduced the values of TS and EB. The addition of propolis extract in the pullulan film improved UV radiation protection but decreased light transparency. The antifungal activity increased significantly with the increasing concentration of propolis extract in the film, regardless of the origin of propolis. Molds showed greater sensitivity to pullulan films containing propolis extract than yeasts. In general, films made of pullulan with the addition of propolis extract can be considered as natural active packaging to protect against the growth of fungi in food.