RHINOSINUSITIS IN PATIENTS IN POST-COVID-19 PERIOD: ETIOLOGY, CLINICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Wiad Lek. 2022;75(8 pt 2):1945-1953. doi: 10.36740/WLek202208201.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim is to identify the etiology, clinical and morphological features of rhinosinusitis in patients in post-COVID-19 period.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: In the present study, it was carried out the analysis of 11 cases of rhinosinusitis, which developed after COVID-19 infection. The diagnosis of rhiĀ¬nosinusitis was established on the basis of anamnesis, clinical and laboratory examination, specialized instrumental examination (rhinoendoscopy, X-ray, magnetic resonance imaging, spiral and 3D computed tomography). All patients underwent endoscopic sanitation of the nasal cavity, expansion of the maxillary anastomosis, maxillary sinusotomy, sanitation of the maxillary sinuses and removal of pathologically altered tissues. Microbiological examination of the swab from the nasal cavity was carried out in all patients. Histological and morphometric research methods were used during the morphological study of surgical material. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the means in the groups.

RESULTS: Results: The conducted comprehensive study made it possible to identify chronic atrophic rhinosinusitis at the stage of exacerbation caused by associations of bacteria and fungi in patients in post-COVID-19 period. Among bacteria, the authors most often noted Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococcus pneumonia and Enterococcus faecalis. Among fungi, there were Aspergillus, Candida, Mucor and Coccidioides. Fungal infection was characterized by invasion into the mucous membrane of the nose and paranasal sinuses. In patients in post-COVID-19 period the invasive bacterial-fungal chronic atrophic rhinosinusitis at the stage of exacerbation was predominantly bilateral, characterized by the involvement of several or all paranasal sinuses in the process. Patients with such pathology complained of periodic fever, headaches and malaise; nasal congestion and constant difficulty in nasal breathing; yellowish-greenish-reddish discharge from the nasal cavity, sometimes with a fetid odor; discomfort and pain in the area of paranasal sinuses; immobility of the eyeball, hyposmia or anosmia; reduction or complete loss of vision. Frequent risk factors for the development of invasive bacterial-fungal chronic atrophic rhinosinusitis at the stage of exacerbation in patients in post-COVID-19 period were the information about moderate or severe course of this infection in anamnesis; comorbidities (predominantly diabetes mellitus, hypertensive disease and ischemic heart disease).

CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The study conducted by the authors made it possible to identify the etiological, clinical and morphological features, as well as risk factors of rhinosinusitis in patients in post-COVID-19 period. This information will contribute to a better understanding of such pathology by the doctors and improve the diagnostic and treatment process.

PMID:36129076 | DOI:10.36740/WLek202208201

Source: Industry