Single-Molecule Real-Time Sequencing to Explore the Mycobiome Diversity in Malt

Microbiol Spectr. 2022 Sep 26:e0051122. doi: 10.1128/spectrum.00511-22. Online ahead of print.


This study determined the composition of fungal communities and characterized the enriched fungal species in raw and roasted malts via the third-generation PacBio-based full-length single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing of the full-length amplicon of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. In total, one kingdom, six phyla, 23 classes, 56 orders, 120 families, 188 genera, 333 species, and 780 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected with satisfactory sequencing depth and sample size. Wickerhamomyces (56%), Cyberlindnera (15%), Dipodascus (12%), and Candida (6.1%) were characterized as the dominant genera in the raw malts, and Aspergillus (35%), Dipodascus (21%), Wickerhamomyces (11%), and Candida (3.5%) in the roasted malts. Aspergillus proliferans, Aspergillus penicillioides, and Wickerhamomyces anomalus represented the crucial biomarkers causing intergroup differences. Correlation analysis regarding environmental factors indicated that the water activity (aw) of the samples affected the composition of the fungal communities in the malts. In practice, special attention should be paid to the mycotoxin-producing fungi, as well as other fungal genera that are inversely correlated with their growth, to ensure the safe use of malt and its end products. IMPORTANCE Fungal contamination and secondary metabolite accumulation in agricultural products represent a global food safety challenge. Although high-throughput sequencing (HTS) is beneficial for explaining fungal communities, it presents disadvantages, such as short reads, species-level resolution, and uncertain identification. This work represents the first attempt to characterize the fungal community diversity, with a particular focus on mycotoxin-producing fungi, in malt via the third-generation PacBio-based full-length SMRT sequencing of the ITS region, aiming to explore and compare the differences between the fungal communities of raw and roasted malts. The research is beneficial for developing effective biological control and conservation measures, including improving the roasting conditions, monitoring the environmental humidity and aw, and effectively eliminating and degrading fungi in the industry chain according to the diverse fungal communities determined, for the safe use of malts and their end products, such as beers. In addition, the third-generation SMRT sequencing technology allows highly efficient analysis of fungal community diversity in complex matrices, yielding fast, high-resolution long reads at the species level. It can be extended to different research fields, updating modern molecular methodology and bioinformatics databases.

PMID:36154437 | DOI:10.1128/spectrum.00511-22

Source: Industry