Rural environment reduces allergic inflammation by modulating the gut microbiota

Gut Microbes. 2022 Jan-Dec;14(1):2125733. doi: 10.1080/19490976.2022.2125733.


Rural environments and microbiota are linked to a reduction in the prevalence of allergies. However, the mechanism underlying the reduced allergies modulated by rural residency is unclear. Here, we assessed gut bacterial composition and metagenomics in urban and rural children in the EuroPrevall-INCO cohort. Airborne dusts, including mattress and rural henhouse dusts, were profiled for bacterial and fungal composition by amplicon sequencing. Mice were repeatedly exposed to intranasal dust extracts and evaluated for their effects on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airway inflammation, and gut microbiota restoration was validated by fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) from dust-exposed donor mice. We found that rural children had fewer allergies and unique gut microbiota with fewer Bacteroides and more Prevotella. Indoor dusts in rural environments harbored higher endotoxin level and diversity of bacteria and fungi, whereas indoor urban dusts were enriched with Aspergillus and contained elevated pathogenic bacteria. Intranasal administration of rural dusts before OVA sensitization reduced respiratory eosinophils and blood IgE level in mice and also led to a recovery of gut bacterial diversity and Ruminiclostridium in the mouse model. FMT restored the protective effect by reducing OVA-induced lung eosinophils in recipient mice. Together, these results support a cause-effect relationship between exposure to dust microbiota and allergy susceptibility in children and mice. Specifically, rural environmental exposure modulated the gut microbiota, which was essential in reducing allergy in children from Southern China. Our findings support the notion that the modulation of gut microbiota by exposure to rural indoor dust may improve allergy prevention.

PMID:36193874 | DOI:10.1080/19490976.2022.2125733

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