Non-Mucormycetes Causes of Fungal Rhino Sinusitis With Periocular Swelling in COVID-19 With Delta Variant
Cureus. 2022 Sep 6;14(9):e28825. doi: 10.7759/cureus.28825. eCollection 2022 Sep.
OBJECTIVE: To highlight fungi other than mucormycetes as causative agents of rhinosinusitis with periocular swelling in coronavirus (COVID-19) infection caused by Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 virus and identify the presenting features, risk factors, intervention, and outcomes.
METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A retrospective interventional study of 96 patients with fungal rhinosinusitis and periocular swelling was done in patients with concurrent or recovered COVID-19 infection with the Delta variant (B.1.617.2) of SARS-CoV-2 virus in India. All patients with mucormycetes infection were excluded. Clinical presentation, medical history, blood reports, and imaging were analyzed. Management was by intravenous (IV) liposomal amphotericin B and functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) with paranasal sinus debridement. Limited orbital debridement with or without transcutaneous retrobulbar liposomal amphotericin B (TRAMB) was done in patients with orbital involvement. Postoperative antifungal therapy was decided on the basis of the causative fungi.
RESULTS: Four cases of Aspergillus and one each of Fusarium, Curvularia, and Penicillium-associated fungal rhinosinusitis with periocular swelling were seen. Signs of orbital involvement on MRI were present in all four of them. Two of these showed partial third-nerve palsy while one case with aspergillosis suffered cavernous sinus thrombosis. Proptosis was not witnessed in any case. History of diabetes and use of steroids was seen in all patients. All patients had mild to moderate COVID-19 with oxygen supplementation needed in one. No mortality, acute vision loss, or exenteration took place.
CONCLUSION: Aspergillus, Fusarium, Curvularia, and Penicillium were non-mucormycetes causes of fungal rhinosinusitis with periocular swelling in COVID-19 infection with the Delta variant (B.1.617.2) of SARS COV-2 virus. Few cases showed orbital and intracranial involvement.