Eur Respir Rev. 2022 Oct 19;31(166):220104. doi: 10.1183/16000617.0104-2022. Print 2022 Dec 31.
Non-Aspergillus filamentous fungi causing invasive mould infections have increased over the last years due to the widespread use of anti-Aspergillus prophylaxis and increased complexity and survival of immunosuppressed patients. In the few studies that have reported on invasive mould infection epidemiology, Mucorales are the most frequently isolated group, followed by either Fusarium spp. or Scedosporium spp. The overall incidence is low, but related mortality is exceedingly high. Patients with haematological malignancies and haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients comprise the classical groups at risk of infection for non-Aspergillus moulds due to profound immunosuppression and the vast use of anti-Aspergillus prophylaxis. Solid organ transplant recipients also face a high risk, especially those receiving lung transplants, due to direct exposure of the graft to mould spores with altered mechanical and immunological elimination, and intense, associated immunosuppression. Diagnosing non-Aspergillus moulds is challenging due to unspecific symptoms and radiological findings, lack of specific biomarkers, and low sensitivity of cultures. However, the advent of molecular techniques may prove helpful. Mucormycosis, fusariosis and scedosporiosis hold some differences regarding clinical paradigmatic presentations and preferred antifungal therapy. Surgery might be an option, especially in mucormycosis. Finally, various promising strategies to restore or enhance the host immune response are under current evaluation.