Dent J (Basel). 2022 Nov 9;10(11):213. doi: 10.3390/dj10110213.
Aspergillosis is a fungal infection caused by Aspergillus species, which is contracted through spores that colonize the respiratory tract, causing rhinosinusitis and pulmonary infections. Oral aspergillosis is rare and, when present, may cause soft tissue and bone destruction, generally in immunodeficient patients. Mandibular Aspergillus osteomyelitis is even rarer, with few cases reported in the literature. A 57-year-old Caucasian woman was referred for the evaluation of painful recurrent swelling in the anterior mandibular alveolar ridge, with purulent drainage, previously treated with multiple surgical debridement procedures and antibiotics without success. The patient was otherwise systemically healthy. Surgical debridement was performed and histopathological examination showed osteomyelitis associated with Aspergillus species. Therapy with oral itraconazole (400 mg per day) was administered for 3 months, resulting in complete resolution. No recurrence was detected after 15 years of follow-up. The patient was rehabilitated with dental implants. In conclusion, non-bacterial microorganisms, such as Aspergillus, should be considered in cases of mandibular osteomyelitis that do not heal after surgical debridement and antibiotic therapy.