J Fungi (Basel). 2022 Nov 10;8(11):1187. doi: 10.3390/jof8111187.
Enzyme production by microorganisms on an industrial scale has demonstrated technical bottlenecks, such as low efficiency in enzyme expression and extracellular secretion. In this study, as a potential tool for overcoming these technical limits, radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure was examined for its possibility to enhance production of an enzyme, α-amylase, in a filamentous fungus, Aspergillus oryzae. The RF-EMF perfectly resonated at 2 GHz with directivity radiation pattern and peak gain of 0.5 dB (0.01 Watt). Total protein concentration and activity of α-amylase measured in media were about 1.5-3-fold higher in the RF-EMF exposed (10 min) sample than control (no RF-EMF) during incubation (the highest increase after 16 h). The level of α-amylase mRNA in cells was approximately 2-8-fold increased 16 and 24 h after RF-EMF exposure for 10 min. An increase in vesicle accumulation within fungal hyphae and the transcription of some genes involved in protein cellular trafficking was observed in RF-EMF-exposed samples. Membrane potential was not changed, but the intracellular Ca2+ level was elevated after RF-EMF exposure. Our results suggest that RF-EMF can increase the extracellular level of fungal total proteins and α-amylase activity and the intracellular level of Ca2+.