Fungal Periprosthetic Hip Joint Infections
Diagnostics (Basel). 2022 Sep 27;12(10):2341. doi: 10.3390/diagnostics12102341.
Introduction: Fungal hip prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are rare but severe infections. Their incidence has increased in the last decades due to the aging population, as well as due to the increased number of immunosuppressed hosts. The present review of all published fungal PJIs in hip arthroplasties aims to present as much data as possible for both medical and surgical treatment options, so that the best applicable management may be concluded. Methods: A meticulous review of all published fungal hip PJIs was conducted. Information regarding demographics, causative fungus, antifungal treatment (AFT), surgical management as well as the infection outcome was recorded. Results: A total of 89 patients suffering fungal hip PJI were identified. The patients’ mean age was 66.9 years. The mean time from initial arthroplasty to onset of symptoms was 69.3 months, while 40.4% of the patients were immunocompromised. The most common imaging method indicating diagnosis was plain X-ray or CT scan (20.2%), while definite diagnosis had become possible through cultures in most cases (98.9%), and/or histology (44.9%). The most frequently isolated fungus was C. albicans (49.4%), followed by C. parapsilosis (18%) and C. glabrata (12.4%), while bacterial co-infection was present in 32 cases (36%). Two-stage revision arthroplasty (TSRA) was the most commonly performed procedure (52.8%), with mean time between the two stages = 7.9 months. Regarding antifungal treatment (AFT), fluconazole was the preferred agent (62.9%), followed by amphotericin B (36%), while the mean duration of AFT was 5.1 months. Outcome was successful in 68 cases (76.4%). Conclusions: Both diagnosis and management of fungal PJIs in patients having undergone total hip arthroplasty are quite demanding. A multidisciplinary approach is of utmost importance, since the combination of AFT and TSRA appears to be the proper treatment method.
PMID:36292030 | DOI:10.3390/diagnostics12102341