Optimization of substrate composition for pectinase production from Satkara (Citrus macroptera) peel using Aspergillus niger-ATCC 1640 in solid-state fermentation
Heliyon. 2021 Oct 5;7(10):e08133. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e08133. eCollection 2021 Oct.
Pectinase is an enzyme having a broad industrial and commercial application. However, higher production costs may be the major constraint for the wide-scale application of pectinase. Therefore, researchers are trying to reduce the pectinase production cost for subsequent application in the industrial processes by using a unique substrate and optimizing the fermentation medium components and process conditions. The main purpose of the current study was to optimize medium composition for pectinase production using Aspergillus niger-ATCC 1640 in the solid-state fermentation. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was performed to evaluate the effects of variables, specifically the concentrations of Satkara peel, urea, (NH4)2PO4, NH4NO3, KH2PO4, ZnSO4, and MgSO4.7H2O on pectinase production in the solid substrate. Firstly, a two-factorial design, Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was applied to screen the variables that significantly influenced the pectinase production. After finding the critical variables, 15 experimental runs were carried out using a Box-Behnken design (BBD) to derive a statistical model for optimizing the concentrations of the selected variables. The PBD model revealed that Satkara peel, urea, and (NH4)2SO4 significantly affected the pectinase production. RSM results indicated that the predicted response for pectinase production was in good agreement with experimental data (R2 = 0.9836). Under the optimized condition of Satkara peel (8.4 g/L), urea (0.5 g/L), and (NH4)2SO4 (2.7 g/L), the pectinase activity was predicted to be 0.6178 μmol/mL. In the present study, the experimental pectinase production achieved 0.6045 μmol/mL. The study revealed that optimization through RSM could improve the pectinase production from Satkara peel.