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Coccidioidomycosis, often known as San Joaquin Valley fever, is caused by the dimorphic pathogenic fungi Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadassi.

Epidemiology and distribution

Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadassi are endemic to the Western Hemisphere’s arid regions, especially in Southwestern United States and Central and South America. (1) The disease was first identified in Argentina and then in California, where from 1992 to 1995 there was a significant surge in cases in the southern San Joaquin Valley; hence, the commonly used name of San Joaquin Valley fever. Currently, it is estimated that there are more than 150,000 yearly infections in the USA, and the numbers are significantly increasing each year.