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Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is a life-threatening opportunistic disease caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii, formerly known as Pneumocystis carinii species, a unicellular eukaryotic and ubiquitous yeast-like fungus. Conservative approximations calculate around 400,000 cases of PCP annually worldwide, but this is likely to be an underestimate of the true burden.